Robert Hass | 罗伯特·哈斯

 

 

English

 

VARIATIONS ON A PASSAGE IN EDWARD ABBEY

 

 

A dune begins with an obstacle—a stone, a shrub, a log,

anything heavy enough to resist being moved by the wind.

 

This obstacle forms a wind shadow on its leeward side

making eddies in the currents, now fast, now slow, of the air,

 

exactly as a rock in a stream causes an eddy in the water.

Within the eddy the wind moves with less force and less velocity

 

than the airstreams on either side, creating what geologists call

the surface of discontinuity. And it is here that the wind

 

tends to drop part of its load of sand. The sand particles,

which hop or bounce along the earth before the wind,

 

begin to accumulate,

creating a greater eddy in the air currents

and capturing still more sand.

It’s thus a dune is formed.

 

Viewed in cross section, sand dunes display a characteristic profile.

On the windward side the angle of ascent is low and gradual—

 

twenty to twenty-five degrees from the horizontal. On the leeward side

the slope is much steeper, usually about thirty-four degrees—

 

the angle of repose of sand and most other loose materials.

The steep side of the dune is called the slip face

because of the slides

that occur as sand is driven up the windward side

and deposited on or just over the crest.

The weight of the crest

eventually becomes greater than can be supported by the sand beneath,

so the extra sand slumps down the slip face

and the whole dune

advances in the direction of the prevailing wind, until some obstacle

like a mountain intervenes.

This movement, this grand slow march

across the earth’s surface, has an external counterpart in the scouring

movement of glaciers,

and an internal one in the movement of grief

which has something in it of the desert’s bareness

and of its distances.

 

中文

 

爱德华·艾比一段短文的变体

 

 

沙丘形成于障碍——石头,灌木丛,原木,

一切重得足以抵抗被风吹动的东西。

 

这种障碍在其背风面形成一个风幕

在气流中,在忽快忽慢的风中制造旋涡,

 

正如溪流里的岩石在水中引起旋涡。

在旋涡之内,风在两侧以气流较少的

 

力量和速度运动,生成地质学家称之的

突变面。正是在这里,风

 

要甩落它所负载的沙尘的一部分。沙子微粒,

顺风沿着地球跳跃或颠跑,

 

开始积聚,

在气流中生成更大的旋涡

并捕捉更多的沙子。

从而一个沙丘形成。

 

在横截面观看,沙丘呈现一个典型的轮廓。

在迎风面螺旋角低而平缓——

 

与地平线成二十到二十五度角。在背风面

斜坡非常陡峭,通常大约三十四度角——

 

是沙和大多数其它松软物质的休止角。

沙丘的陡沿被称之为背风面

由于

当沙子被抬上迎风面并堆积于丘顶

或稍过丘顶时发生的滑动。

丘顶的重量

最终变得比下方的沙能够支撑的还大,

那么额外的沙重重地落下背风面

而整个沙丘

在主风的方向里演进,直到遇到某些障碍

比如说山脉横亘其间。

这种运动,这种穿过地球表面

宏伟缓慢的行进,与冰川的洗擦运动

外在相应,又与暗涌的悲伤

--其中有沙漠的裸露与遥远,

内在相应。

 

翻译 © 远洋

 

爱德华·艾比(Edward Abbey, 1927—1989),美国著名生态文学作家。

 

more by Robert Hass

The Problem of Describing Trees | 描述树木的问题

That Music | 那音乐

September, Inverness | 九月,因弗内斯

Iowa, January | 爱荷华,一月

Three Dawn Songs in Summer | 三首夏季黎明之歌

The apple Trees at Olema | 奥利马的苹果树

Measure | 测度

Child Naming Flowers | 给花朵命名的孩子

Maps | 地图册

After Goethe | 歌德之后

Summer/Fall 2015

寒烟 | Han Yan

何福仁 | Ho Fuk-yan

Oils & Watercolors © 劉定渝 & 劉天可 | Danny Liu & Tien-Call Liu